An introduction to the history of gulag archipelago

News of the nature of the work immediately caused a stir, and translations into many other languages followed within the next few months, sometimes produced in a race against time. Although the total number of prisoners in the camps generally hovered around 2 million, this constant number means that the total number of Soviet citizens who had some experience of the camps is far higher.

Thus, in an economy that employed nearly million persons, the Gulag accounted for two out of every hundred workers See Chart 3.

The Gulag Archipelago in three volumes

Yes, part 3 which consists about of the pages drags after a while. In fact, prisoners in the Gulag were, on average, half as productive as free laborers in the USSR at the time, [63] which may be partially explained by malnutrition.

Well, enough inter-review banter.

The Gulag Archipelago

This resulted in 60, people being sent to the camps and anotherexiled in a mere four months. Penal labor was supposed to provide these surpluses and resource mobility without the loss of labor productivity.

To summarize the whole seven books of the Gulag Archipelago in a single sentence, I would say that it is a book about men under a total ideology, crushed under it, or crushing other men under it, or just standing at its side and watching, and what it is like, and what it does to you.

Ideology — that is what gives evildoing its long-sought justification and gives the evildoer the necessary steadfastness and determination.

The Gulag Archipelago, 1918-1956: An Experiment in Literary Investigation, Books III-IV

Solzhenitsyn did not think this series would be his defining work, as he considered it journalism and history rather than high literature.

No one wants to think that we defeated one mass murderer with the help of another. It was difficult to find people who were even able to gather firewood or bury the dead. All of that contributed to our firm conviction that the Second World War was a wholly just war, and even today few want that conviction shaken.

The chapters by Sokolov Borodkin and Ertz show the degree to which these expectations were not realized. The head of the Gulag administration was personally responsible for carrying out these orders and directives.

The term of custody was supposed to be the decisive formal criterion for the type of confinement: To help prevent the mass escapes the OGPU started to recruit people within the colony to help stop people who attempted to leave, and set up ambushes around known popular escape routes.

The term "Kulak" would also become associated with anyone who opposed or even seemed unsatisfied with the Soviet government.

Wheatcroft asserts that it is essentially a "literary and political work", and "never claimed to place the camps in a historical or social-scientific quantitative perspective".

Collectivization resulted in a large scale purge of peasants and so-called Kulaks. Yes, even Iago was a little lamb too. In the Gulag set up the Supply Administration to find their own food and industrial goods.

Helped along by the mass arrests ofthe camps entered a period of rapid expansion. In the official in charge of prison administration wrote: We remember D-Day, the liberation of the Nazi concentration camps, the children welcoming American GI s with cheers on the streets.

The purpose of these new camps was to colonize the remote and inhospitable environments throughout the Soviet Union.

Table 5 divides the Gulag labor staffing plan into construction, industry, and contract employment. How else could they get food for the zoos in those famine years?

Three chapters examine the general institutions of force and coercion as applied to labor Khlevnyuk, Sokolov, and Tikhonov. Soltzhenitsyn talks about how the camp brought out who people really are.

The Soviet Union is well and truly gone. Although the Gulag administration expected a continued decline in its role at the end of the war, there was a new influx of inmates sentenced under new criminal codes, returning POWs, and wartime collaborators.

To a degree, the Gulag attempted to reduce the friction between its isolation and economic functions by locating production facilities close to the place of confinement, but this was an expensive solution.

Right up to the very end, our views of the Soviet Union, and its repressive system, always had more to do with American politics and American ideological struggles than they did with the Soviet Union itself. Yagoda fromN. Nevertheless, the camps did not disappear altogether.

Its planners consistently expected a diminishing number of prisoners. In the NKVD focused most of its energy on railroad construction.

The solution they found was to push the remaining prisoners still harder.

To simplify the discussion that follows, we shall use the best-known designation of the interior ministry of the Stalin era — the NKVD. The exploitation of prison labor, the system of squeezing "golden sweat" from them, the organization of production in places of confinement, which while profitable from a commercial point of view is fundamentally lacking in corrective significance — these are entirely inadmissible in Soviet places of confinement.

May we not be too quick to leave the wisdom of the past behind. Geographical remoteness allowed prisoners to be isolated form the rest of the population and reduced the costs of security.

It was renamed the MVD in At one level, the Gulag Archipelago traces the history of the system of forced labour camps that existed in the Soviet Union from tostarting with V.I. Lenin's original decrees shortly after the October Revolution establishing the legal and practical framework for a series of camps where political prisoners and ordinary criminals.

The Gulag Archipelago Volume 2 is a distillation of the experience and history of the labor camp system of the Soviet Union and the untold millions who died. All three volumes of the book received a Nobel Peace Prize, and it is not difficult to understand why after reading the second book in the set/5.

Sobranie Dokumentov v 7 Tomakh (The History of Stalin's Gulag. From the Late s to the First Half of the s. From the Late s to the First Half of the s.

Solzhenitsyn has recreated the history between and of "that amazing country of Gulag which, though scattered in an archipelago geographically, was, in the psychological sense, fused into a continent--an almost invisible, almost imperceptible, country inhabited by the zek people [prisoners]".

Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. search Search the Wayback Machine. Featured texts All Texts latest This Just In Smithsonian Libraries FEDLINK (US) Genealogy Lincoln Collection Full text of "Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn The Gulag Archipelago".

An Introduction to the Economics of the Gulag. As noted by an internal Gulag document: "The history of the Gulag is the history of the colonization and industrial exploitation of the remote regions of the state.

The Gulag Archipelago, 3 vols. (New York: Harper and Row, ).

An introduction to the history of gulag archipelago
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